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新托福阅读推理题(想问下托福考试跟雅思考试有什么区别?)

新托福阅读推理题新托福阅读推理题是比较让童鞋们头疼的一类题型,它考察的内容多为隐藏在文章里、需要根据文章信息进行合理推测得出的结论,这意味着正确选项不会是文章中...

导读:新托福阅读推理题新托福阅读推理题是比较让童鞋们头疼的一类题型,它考察的内容多为隐藏在文章里、需要根据文章信息进行合理推测得出的结论,这意味着正确选项不会是文章中...

新托福阅读推理题(想问下托福考试跟雅思考试有什么区别?)

新托福阅读推理题

新托福阅读推理题

新托福阅读推理题是比较让童鞋们头疼的一类题型,它考察的内容多为隐藏在文章里、需要根据文章信息进行合理推测得出的结论,这意味着正确选项不会是文章中直接出现的信息,而又必须能够由文中信息推理得出。下面我们来了解一下推理题的两种不同方向。

正向推理

正向推理指的是最后的答案往往是和文章所描述的内容一致的,而这种特征一般视为整体和部分的一致性,所以正向推理也被称为整体与部分推理。

正向推理包含两种主要情形,一种叫做给定段里面没有推理对象的情况,另外一种叫做有举例引发的整体与部分推理。所谓整体与部分推理,就是文章里面讲述一个特质是A,下面选项中的特征也是A,这个特质本身没有变化。文章里面讲什么特质,下面选项中就是什么特质,只不过一个是整体,一个是部分而已。

逆向推理

逆向推理又叫取非式推理,文章中讲的是A,下面选项里最终答案是非A,此推理包含三种情形。

1.由新时间点引发的逆向推理

比如now表示现在,含有典型的暗转折含义。事实上,凡是时间点概念,都暗示着转折。比如说:1999年澳门回归了,这意味着1999年之前澳门没有回归。这条原则可能听起来怪怪的,但意义重大,以后我们做托福文章要比其他没有经历过严格训练的同学多长一个心眼,但凡是有时间点出现,就意味着前后的特质不一致,而这恰好是考点。

2.由新地点引发的逆向推理

事实上,它和第一点的内涵是一致的,可以被统称为分类取非。在文章中经常会出现把一个大类分成两个小类的情况,比如文章里面讲述生物分为两类,一类是动物,一类是植物,这时文章里面会谈到动物和植物的不同点而不会是相同点。

3.由特定词引发的逆向推理

这一类词包括unlike、without以及所有能够表示比例的词等。一般推理题只要找准用来推理的句子,然后按照上面两种方法来做就不会有什么问题了。

只要掌握了这些技巧,当你在做托福阅读时,也能像侦探一样进行推理了。

新托福阅读推理题抢分大法

一、 推理题的标志

推理题的题干中一般含有infer, imply, most likely, least likely, probably等词,分为有共性的推理题和无共性的推理题两大类。

二、 推理题的做法

对于无共性的推理题,也就是题干中无线索的,一般使用排除法,即根据各个选项的关键词回原文定位,通过排除法得出正确答案。

对于有共性的推理题,也就是题干中有线索的,建议考生可以先圈定题干中的关键词,根据关键词回原文定位,然后进行推理。推理题主要有下列思路:

1. 一般对比推理

ETS设计推理题的手段不多,根据两个事物的对比特征出题是其中之一。问其中一个事物的特征时,只要将与之形成对比的另一个事物的特征否定掉就可以了。

例如:

It should be obvious that cetaceans, whales, porpoises, and dolphins are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds 【seals, sea lions, and walruses whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea】, it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like.

Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about early sea otters?

A. It is not difficult to imagine what they looked like.

B. There were great numbers of them.

C. They lived in the sea only.

D. They did not leave many fossil remains.

2. 时间对比推理

这种思路常被考到。在这种推理中,一般有两个形成对比的时间段,它们所具有的特征一般相反。当题干问一个时间段的特征时,只要将与之相反的时间段的特征否定掉就可以了。

例:

Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is the country’s impressive population growth….

…It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.

It can be inferred from the passage that before the Industrial Revolution

【A】 families were larger.

【B】 population statistics were unreliable.

【C】 the population grew steadily.

【D】 economic conditions were bad.

3.集合概念推理

集合概念推理也可以称之为百分比推断,它指的是在一个集合中,包含两个相对的方面,共同构成一个大的集合。一方所占的比例减少意味着另一方所占比例的增加;反之,一方所占的比例增加意味着另一方所占比例的减少。根据这一思路,可以由集合中一方的数量变化推断另一方的消减。

例:

A folk culture is small, isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. …Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada….

By contrast, a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group, often highly individualistic and constantly changing.

What does the author imply about the United States and Canada?

【A】 They value folk cultures.

【B】 They have no social classes.

【C】 They have popular cultures.

【D】 They do not value individualism.

托福阅读满分需要具备哪些能力

托福考试中,听力分数决定了托福总分的上线,而阅读分数决定了托福总分的下线。因此,想要保底托福成绩,阅读部分是大家复习的重点。那么如果想要拿到阅读部分的满分,具体我们应该怎么做,需要掌握哪些能力呢?

一、扎实词汇基础

新托福阅读有一个很大的特色就是有专门考察单词的题型,也就是词汇题。

从文章中抽出一个单词,给四个选项,让考生选择与这个单词词义最接近最符合的。

这些词汇并没有大纲可以背,所以考生平时要注意大量的词汇积累,尤其是一些学术学科的词汇。

二、了解基本语法知识

这是一项比较全面的考察学生英语能力的考试,从词汇到句子,一直到篇章。

但是要理解句子的含义,只是认识词汇是不够的,有的时候需要通过语法知识去分析。这种语法在很多题型中都有所体现。

三、牢记逻辑关系词

理解英语句子要注重其逻辑关系,常见的逻辑关系有并列【and, as well】,比较【than, as…as】,因果【because, so, therefore, thus, result from】,递进【also, furthermore】,转折【but, however, yet】…

不仅句子内有这些逻辑关系,句子和句子之间也有这些逻辑关系,这样才能理清整篇文章的脉络,提炼主要信息。

四、加强快速阅读能力

每篇的时间规定20分钟,这个时间包括阅读长篇的文章,和完成11或13道题目,所以时间非常紧张。

这个时候,阅读的速度就非常关键了,因此,同学们平时加强阅读速度的训练。

五、培养归纳能力

最后一大题都是以全文意思的归纳为基础才能完成的,尤其是summary,考察考生对文章的整体把握。

因此考生在平时练习的时候一定要注意对文章段落的归纳,能够在较短的时间内把文章段落的中心思想提炼出来。

平时多注重归纳能力的训练,考试的时候就不会害怕summary这种归纳概括类的题型了。

托福阅读真题练习

托福阅读文本:

In July of 1994, an astounding series of events took place. The world anxiously watched as,every few hours, a hurtling chunk of comet plunged into the atmosphere of Jupiter. All of the twenty-odd fragments, collectively called comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 after its discoverers, were once part of the same object, now dismembered and strung out along the same orbit. This cometary train, glistening like a string of pearls, had been first glimpsed only a few months before its fateful impact with Jupiter, and rather quickly scientists had predicted that the fragments were on a collision course with the giant planet. The impact caused an explosion clearly visible from Earth, a bright flaming fire that quickly expanded as each icy mass incinerated itself. When each fragment slammed at 60 kilometers per second into the dense atmosphere, its immense kinetic energy was transformed into heat, producing a superheated fireball that was ejected back through the tunnel the fragment had made a few seconds earlier. The residues from these explosions left huge black marks on the face of Jupiter, some of which have stretched out to form dark ribbons.

Although this impact event was of considerable scientific import, it especially piqued public curiosity and interest. Photographs of each collision made the evening television newscast and were posted on the Internet. This was possibly the most open scientific endeavor in history. The face of the largest planet in the solar system was changed before our very eyes. And for the very first time, most of humanity came to fully appreciate the fact that we ourselves live on a similar target, a world subject to catastrophe by random assaults from celestial bodies. That realization was a surprise to many, but it should not have been. One of the great truths revealed by the last few decades of planetary exploration is that collisions between bodies of all sizes are relatively commonplace, at least in geologic terms, and were even more frequent in the early solar system.

托福阅读题目:

1. The passage mentions which of the following with respect to the fragments of comet

Shoemaker-Levy 9?

【A】 They were once combine in a larger body.

【B】 Some of them burned up before entering the atmosphere of Jupiter.

【C】 Some of them are still orbiting Jupiter.

【D】 They have an unusual orbit.

2. The word "collectively" in line 3 is closest in meaning to

【A】 respectively

【B】 popularly

【C】 also

【D】 together

3. The author compares the fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 to all of the following

EXCEPT

【A】 a dismembered body

【B】 a train

【C】 a pearl necklace

【D】 a giant planet

4. Before comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit Jupiter in July 1994, scientists

【A】 had been unaware of its existence

【B】 had been tracking it for only a few months

【C】 had observed its breakup into twenty-odd fragments

【D】 had decided it would not collide with the planet

5. Before the comet fragments entered the atmosphere of Jupiter, they were most likely

【A】 invisible

【B】 black

【C】 frozen

【D】 exploding

6. Superheated fireballs were produced as soon as the fragments of comet Shoemaker- Levy 9

【A】 hit the surface of Jupiter

【B】 were pulled into Jupiter's orbit

【C】 were ejected back through the tunnel

【D】 entered the atmosphere of Jupiter

7. The phrase "incinerated itself" in line 9 is closest in meaning to

【A】 burned up

【B】 broke into smaller pieces

【C】 increased its speed

【D】 grew in size

8. Which of the following is mentioned as evidence of the explosions that is still visible onJupiter?

【A】 fireballs

【B】 ice masses

【C】 black marks

【D】 tunnels

9. Paragraph 2 discusses the impact of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 primarily in terms of

【A】 its importance as an event of great scientific significance

【B】 its effect on public awareness of the possibility of damage to Earth

【C】 the changes it made to the surface of Jupiter

【D】 the effect it had on television broadcasting

10. The "target" in line 20 most probably referred to

【A】 Earth

【B】 Jupiter

【C】 the solar system

【D】 a comet

托福阅读答案:

ADDBC DACBA


新托福阅读推理题(想问下托福考试跟雅思考试有什么区别?)

新托福阅读推理题的拓展资讯

想问下托福考试跟雅思考试有什么区别?

问:想问下托福考试跟雅思考试有什么区别?......

托福考试的特点?

答:托福也就是托福考试,全称为检定非英语为母语者的英语能力考试,它是由美国教育测验服务社举办的英语能力测验,它因为中文TOEFL而音译为“托福”。托福考试主要分为纸考,机考,和网考,而新托福考试是由阅读(Reading)、听力(Listening)、口试.........

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